Saturday, 30 April 2016

How The EU Was Created

How the EU was created, Going Postal

The European Union (EU), with Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand as its main architects, was set up under the Maastricht Treaty on 1 November 1993 and, from that year until 2009, its legal structure consisted of what was known as The Three Pillars:
  • The European Communities (multiple) were responsible for economic, environmental and social matters through the following bodies: the European Community (EEC); the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - until 2002 when it was disbanded); and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM).
  • The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), which governed External Policy
  • The Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCCM), which took over from the previous Justice and Home Affairs.

The last two, when part of the EEC, were not subject to the same democratic controls as the Community system.

Friday, 29 April 2016

First album, first single

Deep Purple - Machine Head - Album (1972) 


20 minutes in.


The Triangle & Tingz

The Triangle & Tings, Going Postal
Super-Overtone™ Triangles
As you are all aware I used to play the triangle in the Band. The Band in question was, to give it the correct title The Band of HM Royal Marines.

As a percussionist the triangle was one of many percussion instruments I was obliged to master and later as an Instructor at the Royal Marines School of Music I ensured this instrument was not neglected.  Whilst we enjoyed the insight that the resident Percussion Professor could bring to this instrument I was also keen to take students in my charge to a Masterclass on the triangle during their intensive training delivered by colleagues in the orchestral field.

Whilst I’ve no doubt the majority of you have already seen the numerous YouTube videos regarding the triangle and playing techniques I have been tasked to enlighten those of you that have not.

Wikipedia: The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. It is a bar of metal, usually steel but sometimes other metals like beryllium copper, bent into a triangle shape. The instrument is usually held by a loop of some form of thread or wire at the top curve. It was first made around the 16th century.

Thursday, 28 April 2016

Question Time with Going Postal, 28th April 2016


Question Time from Hull. On the panel: Conservative communities secretary Greg Clark, Labour's shadow home secretary Andy Burnham, former leader of the SNP Alex Salmond, former director of the Centre for Policy Studies Jill Kirby and hedge fund manager and chairman of the ARK chain of academies Paul Marshall.

Set your Disqus comments to 'newest'. Do not post videos.


Corbyn's Great Purge

DH, Going Postal
Commissar Milne
Slouching in his leather office chair, Seumas Milne's mind began to meander into a melancholic mood. It had been a dark week for the Labour Party.

Everything that Jeremy had worked tirelessly towards for decades was unravelling. Nobody was talking about socialism. Nobody was talking about wealth redistribution. Nobody was even talking about David Cameron's beastly offshore tax arrangements. It was all about Livingstone, and that Blairite fascist John Mann. The creation of a communist utopia seemed a million miles away. 

All because of one word - antisemitism. Was there nothing good and pure, he mused to himself, that the Jews could not find a way of destroying?

He could just quit. Go back to writing fantasy fiction about imposing a Stalinist dictatorship via the pages of The Guardian. Life was so much simpler in those days, he thought. That new lady editor seemed even more dedicated to the cause than Rusbridger. He might move into management, get in on that Cayman Islands slush fund. Retire, move to Tuscany. It sounded like bliss.

The Highly Polished Jackboot of Freedom (Part Two)

The highly polished jackboot of freedom Pt 2, Going Postal
The EUterus
Following the successful and highly productive visit of Barak O’Bama to the UK it is with great pleasure that the makeup of the council of Western Europia can be announced.

Barak, due to his Kenyan/Irish background and his availability for gainful employment from September 2016 will take up the post of Council member without portfolio for the Western region. It is expected that he will work extremely closely with Anthony Blair to continue to uphold the values of Peace and Freedom so beloved of the pair in their respective times in government.

Before announcing the other members it was felt that mention should be made of  some of those persons who have been nominated and/or considered for seats on the Western council but didn’t, for one reason or another, make the final 15.

Several nominations were received for Gordon Brown to have the Regional finance brief but it was considered that, given the fact that he had already saved the World from financial ruin and taking into account the amount of time he spends either deeply sedated or wearing a straightjacket, the job just wouldn’t be big enough for a political colossus of his standing.


Wednesday, 27 April 2016

Robin Schulz - Sun Goes Down feat. Jasmine Thompson



DJ MJ 

The Green Arcadia

Don Quixote, Going Postal



Don Quixote ©

 

PMQs with Going Postal, 27th April 2016


PMQs live stream here on Going Postal TV.


Primum non nocere

There's been a longstanding belief entrenched in society that doctors and nurses are above reproach and must never be criticised or questioned. Of course, that sort of unthinking attitude is what fosters the culture that allowed serial killer doctor Harold Shipman to go undetected for so long and allowed the atrocities at Mid Staffs to be covered up.

And now once again sections of the commentariat are painting junior doctors as heroes and heroines fighting against an evil baby eating Tory government that wants to put poor people into gas chambers. If you look at the detail of the NHS reforms proposed by Jeremy Hunt, there is absolutely nothing wrong with them. Everyone who hasn't got a political point to score agrees the reforms will make for a safer, more efficient NHS. Junior doctors are already well paid. Under the reforms their salaries will go even higher, and most of them can look forward to lucrative careers and a fat pension, all paid for out of the public purse.

So why the strikes? Very simple. Labour backed unions are deliberately waging a war against the government and they're doing it by putting lives at risk. The junior doctors are just doing their unions' bidding. What is disgraceful and unforgivable is that they're going against the most basic tenet of the medical profession: First do no harm. It is indicative of how low Labour has sunk under the ghastly Jeremy Corbyn and his band of deranged communist mates that they're willing to put ordinary people's lives at risk with these outrageous strikes.

Tuesday, 26 April 2016

The task ahead

Judas was paid, Going Postal

After church this morning I decided to canvass several of the folk who were loitering near the door. I asked about Obama and his so called ‘intervention’. Now, the area where I live is one of the strongest Tory Constituencies in the country and I know that all of those I spoke to were Tory voters. I was heartened to discover that all were Brexiters, and several went further by saying that they had come to see DC as a fool of the highest order. Furthermore, Obama’s intervention was no such thing; it was an impertinence and an intrusion.

We are not stupid.

I have to take issue with those who have been posting downbeat comments and who appear to be disheartened by what has taken place over this past week. To each one I say that if you are feeling demoralised, then you are feeling precisely how Cameron wants you to feel. Project Fear is more complex than shouting “Boo!”. There is a concerted campaign to scare the electorate but also to undermine its confidence and to push it towards the notion that all is lost. It is not. The Battle for Britain has hardly even begun and those who feel that we might as well throw in the towel have already been duped by the psychological warfare that is emanating from Downing Street and its environs.

An Inconvenient Truth - Global Greening

Greening of the Earth, Going Postal
A composite image of the Western hemisphere of the Earth. Credit: NASA

An international team of 32 authors from 24 institutions in eight countries has just published a study titled "Greening of the Earth and its Drivers" in the journal Nature Climate Change showing significant greening of a quarter to one-half of the Earth's vegetated lands using data from the NASA-MODIS and NOAA-AVHRR satellite sensors of the past 33 years. The greening represents an increase in leaves on plants and trees. Green leaves produce sugars using energy in the sunlight to mix carbon dioxide (CO2) drawn in from the air with water and nutrients pumped in from the ground. These sugars are the source of food, fiber and fuel for life on Earth. More sugars are produced when there is more CO2 in the air, and this is called CO2 fertilization.

...

The beneficial aspect of CO2 fertilization in promoting plant growth has been used by contrarians, notably Lord Ridley (hereditary peer in the UK House of Lords) and Mr. Rupert Murdoch (owner of several news outlets), to argue against cuts in carbon emissions to mitigate climate change, similar to those agreed at the 21st Conference of Parties (COP) meeting in Paris last year under the UN Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC). "The fallacy of the contrarian argument is two-fold. First, the many negative aspects of climate change.

Monday, 25 April 2016

The Supermen Lovers feat. Herr Styler & Cristine - C'est Bon


 
DJ MJ 

If only Winston had voted Leave

It can be tasted, smelled, heard and felt. It can now be seen - in politics, in the law, in our schools and universities. It has invaded the Police Service and local government. There appears to be intangible common purpose acting, resulting in these sensory perceptions, these feelings of unease. But for whose benefit and for what purpose?

............Winston looked at the TV. Angela Merkel was addressing the UN in New York. Commissioner Erdogan and President Clinton were seated on her flanks, representing the United States of Europe and the USA. Whilst the words could be clearly distinguished all Winston now heard was a noise, like the drone of an old fridge. Winston noticed David Cameron seated three places to the left of Erdogan. Cameron had reached the heady heights of Joint Deputy Commissioner, not the position that he had envisaged five years previously when the Unification Treaty had finally been implemented in Europe and political integration completed. Winston recollected the summer of 2016.........

Nothing more dangerous than tourists




Don Quixote ©

 

Sunday, 24 April 2016

Tricky - Evolution Revolution Love


 
DJ MJ 

I've got my eye on you, Ep 2

The room is inhospitable, all Formica and watered down magnolia. There is faint stink of stale piss and yesterday’s farts. It seems that quite recently somebody has been kept in this confined space for too long. A full hour passes when suddenly and without the fanfare of approaching heel tips the teak veneered door bursts open and in stride two guys; the first is trilby man, minus trilby. His thinning hair is slicked back from his forehead; high templed, you think ‘Nosferatu’. The other is a short arse, with the complexion of a pickled lung. They pull up chairs and lean across on their shiny elbows. They have done this before, many times over. If you didn’t know better you’d have thought they were about to offer you something they had just rifled from the gusset of a Pharaoh’s corpse. The reality was far more prosaic.

Saturday, 23 April 2016

How The EEC Was Created

How the EEC was created, Going Postal


We left the series last week with the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

Now we move onto the late 1950s and the realisation that German and French living standards had began to overtake ours. We had won the war and were going backwards. They were defeated but had flourished. What had gone wrong?

An advantage of losing a war is that all the nation's debts are wiped off as a new republic is set up. That in itself was a huge leap for Germany as her external debt was actually partly written off and partly deferred, based upon the running of a surplus under the London Debt Agreement of 1953. Her creditors thus had a strong incentive to buy German goods and Germany soon cleared her immediate debts. Upon reunification, more debt would become repayable but that became delayed by four decades, due to the unforeseen setting up of the DDR by Stalin. In 1995, after reunification, Germany began to repay these debts and, by 2010, they were all cleared. France also had much of her debt to America written off in 1946 and she benefited from Marshall Plan grants, the total coming to almost $5bn. The UK, by contrast, only had Marshall Plan loans and we shouldered our own debt.

In grateful fashion, the British public had shown their immense appreciation for Winston Churchill by booting him out of office. This was achieved by the Labour party promising what it did not have the funds to pay for: A National Health system, funded out of future taxation; an old-age pension payable by taxing existing workers; the start of a benefits system which paid people who were unemployed; and 'Homes for Heroes', the provision of free housing for those servicemen who could not afford to pay - which was soon extended to all comers. All incredibly worthy aims - all completely unfunded. Those who came later could pick up the tab.

Friday, 22 April 2016

Format:B - Chunky


 
DJ MJ 


Barry trolls Britain

Shroud waving is poor form, Going Postal
Britain must vote to remain in the European Union

From the Telegraph.
Our special relationship was forged as we spilt blood together on the battlefield.
and
The tens of thousands of Americans who rest in Europe’s cemeteries are a silent testament to just how intertwined our prosperity and security truly are.
That's some shroud-waving.

Thursday, 21 April 2016

Question Time with Going Postal, 21st April 2016


Question Time from Exeter. On the panel: Conservative former defence secretary Liam Fox MP, Labour's Kate Hoey MP, former leader of the Liberal Democrats Lord Ashdown, leader of Plaid Cymru Leanne Wood AM and founder and chairman of Wetherspoon Tim Martin.

Set your Disqus comments to 'newest'. Do not post videos.


Nigel Farage is on This Week following QT. 


The Highly Polished Jackboot of Freedom (Part One)

Coloniescross, Going Postal


Highly Sensitive Document, not to be distributed outside the names mentioned below.


In anticipation of the result of the referendum to be held on the 23rd June 2016 in the United Kingdom and the expected resounding success of the Remain campaign, Angela Merkel, proposed new chair of the ruling council is pleased to announce that the next stages in the completion of the ongoing project that is the European Union are ready to be enacted.

As of the 1st of January 2017 the EU in its current form will no longer exist, for the time is now right to make the final transition to Super-statehood. For the Super-state to be a success there will need to be radical changes to the way we are all governed, but individual citizens should not be worried, everything that is being done is for the collective good.


It's not true that Erdogan shags goats




Tuesday, 19 April 2016

Spiller - Groovejet (If This Ain't Love)


 
DJ MJ 



Nous sommes Jan Böhmermann

Nous sommes Jan Böhmermann
Jan Böhmermann

The context of the poem was a teasing "This is an example of what we are not allowed to say" on a satirical telly show. Testspiel.de

Böhmermann:


Apparently in Turkey every, even the smallest satire or comedy show is being watched. So presumably, you also watch our show. Dear Turks, hello, when you watch this here. Maybe we need to explain something to you...? What our colleagues from extra3 did, was to make fun of your politics, Mr. Erdogan. That's legal in Germany and Europe through freedom of arts, freedom of media and freedom of speech.


Going Postal Moderation Philosophy and Policy

 
Going Postal needs you

 

Philosophy

 

To have a liberal commenting policy that allows people to express themselves as fully as possible without damaging other posters and this site.

Policy

 

General

 

Pornography and racist epithets are not wanted. This site is fundamentally for people interested in politics.

Daytime

 

Probably too late now but I would like people to be able to use the site at work without a massive pair of knockers, or worse appearing on the screen. It's fine for those of you on mobile devices but if you're sat in front of a large screen which other people can see. .  .

Monday, 18 April 2016

Europe - Warts and All



Don Quixote ©


UPDATE At 1930 BST There is a Grassroots Out campaign event. Watch on Going Postal TV

Speakers: Rt Hon. Chris Grayling MP, Nigel Farage MEP, Kate Hoey MP

Police Multiculturalism

Police Multiculturalism, Going Postal
’Allo ’allo ’allo, what’s going on here, then?
Multiculturalism requires an authority to be in place that is separate and removed from any of the constituent parts of the mix. That is why there is a pressure to instill the thought that Britain requires a secular society. A secular society is a society that has no core values, other than those that are imposed by the authority that holds the power. They are moveable, as the personnel of the authority changes, by election or by appointment. They are relative, in the sense that they are constructed to suit the prevailing conditions that exist at any given time.

There was a time when Britain was described as a Christian country. This did not mean that everybody was Christian, or that they were all attending church on a Sunday. However, it did mean that the society was shaped by values that we might call Judaeo-Christian in origin. These were centred around the home; marriage (male and female), family, care of children, care for the sick and care for the old. They were centred around the workplace; the husband/father goes to work, he earns his wage, he uses his wage to support himself and his family. This is his duty. The wider society was represented in our Parliament, through which the elected government took responsibility to certain things that are necessary for the wellbeing of that society; national finance, health care, education, defence. That was more or less the limit of the government's responsibilities. As for law, individuals were free under the law to pursue those interests and to do those things that were considered not to be injurious to others or to the wellbeing of society as a whole. Where they were deemed to have crossed the line they were punished.


The Ten Plagues of Brexit: Darkness for Three Days

Air Force One, Going Postal
And a great shadow fell over the land of the United Kingdom


EU Directive 10:21–29

And the Lord Junker said unto Obama, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of The United Kingdom, even darkness which may be felt.

And Obama stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of The United Kingdom for three days.



Saturday, 16 April 2016

Any Old Iron


Peter Sellers - Any Old Iron (1957) with Fred Spoons - produced by George Martin

Bette Davis said that Peter Sellers was not an actor but a chameleon. If she was right about that, then I would say that the EU is not a government but is also a chameleon, but without any of Sellers' talent.

Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1894-1972 was a wealthy Austrian aristocrat with dual Japanese nationality through his mother.

He published Pan-Europa in 1923, a manifesto for the International Paneuropean Union which was founded in the same year. Its objective was European integration and its Set of Principles was founded upon Liberalism, Christianity, Social Responsibility, and Pro-Europeanism. It was banned by the Nazi Party and, because of its anti-communist stance, was also shunned by the USSR and its satellites. It was praised by Winston Churchill in his 1946 Zurich speech and attracted many other luminaries. On the face of it, there seemed to be much we could support. As always, the devil lies in the detail.

Friday, 15 April 2016

Cage The Elephant - Ain't No Rest For The Wicked


 
DJ MJ 


For a more reflective discussion may I recommend the 'Going Postal Library'.

Fat Fucking Frumpy Frau (In honour of)

 
The Leader, Going Postal
The Leader

Germany will allow prosecution of a comedian who mocked the Turkish president, German Chancellor Angela Merkel has said.

I've got my eye on you, Ep 1

It’s 24th November 1952 and you have just finished work. On the way home you decide to divert for a swift half and so you make your way to the Saracen’s Head, a mock Tudor Tavern that is only 500 yards off your track. You order a Double Diamond and as little wifey won’t have your meal on the table for a good hour and a half you buy a packet of Smith’s Crisps, the one with the little bluey of salt. Settling into a corner niche in the Lounge beside the fireplace you glance through the hatch into the Public Bar. Is that Arthur and Ted? They see you and raising a glass they disappear momentarily, only to reappear and head towards you. There is a shaking of hands and a checking that all glasses are adequately charged before they sit down and light up, Arthur a pipe, Ted his usual Park Drive. This may prove difficult to keep to forty minutes, you think to yourself.

About twenty minutes in, you notice out the corner of your eye that across the room, half merging with the gaudy mustard of the velvet curtain there is a chap in a trilby. Strange, you think, that a man should wear a trilby indoors. He takes on the yellow tinge of the streetlamp outside and through the swirl of spent smoke hanging in the atmosphere you see that he has a small pad in his hand. He scribbles, the sort of scribble that is more a prompt than a record; he is noting down what is being said. Perhaps he is a writer, using pub chat for inspiration. Perhaps a poet. Whatever, he doesn’t look at you but there is no mistaking the fact that he is listening, and he is interested.


Thursday, 14 April 2016

Question Time with Going Postal, 14th April 2016


Question Time from Doncaster. On the panel are Conservative Daniel Hannan MEP, shadow work and pensions secretary Owen Smith, Westminster leader of the SNP Angus Robertson, Green Party peer Baroness Jones and Dia Chakravarty of the TaxPayers' Alliance.

Set your Disqus comments to 'newest'. Do not post videos.


 

Sheryl Crow - Soak Up The Sun


 
DJ MJ 


Jobs for the Boys (and Girls)

He was in, then he was out
Since Jeremy Corbyn routed the right in the Labour Party there has been a descent into a reactive kind of political fighting.

No longer is there seen to be a need for exciting dynamic and radical policies, no longer do senior Labour politicians need to come out and say how they will make the country better, fairer and more prosperous, no longer do they have to be bothered with even having a slight grasp of any brief.


No, the new way of beating the Tories is to tell everyone who will listen, utilising their very own propaganda arm, the BBC, that the Tories are bad, rubbish, useless, unfit to govern, sex obsessed, ignorant of people’s needs, ideologically driven to starve babies, force everyone onto zero hours contracts and ensure anyone earning over £50k a year doesn’t pay tax.

Blair heir up in the air - EU!

Don Quixote, Going Postal
Cameron's slip shows true allegiance


Don Quixote ©



Wednesday, 13 April 2016

Lorde - Royals


DJ MJ 


If the music is too much you might like to visit The Going Postal Chronicle. It's not completely set up, Google are still doing their thing so it might be a little flaky for some of you.



PMQs with Going Postal, 13th April 2016


PMQs live stream here on Going Postal TV.


The biggest trafficker of people to Europe revealed

Economic migrants, Going Postal
Each 'asylum seeker' pays up to £10,000 for a trip to the UK

Migrants have been paying almost £10,000 each to cross the Channel in private boats as people traffickers find new ways to avoid tighter security at Dover and Calais.

Telegraph


Meanwhile Erdogan, the biggest people trafficker demands 6 billion Euros, to continue shipping third world dross to Europe, and the EU agrees to it.

At a preparatory meeting with Merkel and Rutte on Sunday night, he demanded double the 3 billion euros ($3.29 billion) earmarked so far to support Syrian refugees in Turkey.

Reuters

Erdogan and Merkel, Going Postal
Know your enemies


GP


Tuesday, 12 April 2016

Age is the price of wisdom

Judas was paid, Going Postal
Up yours youth
I have heard it said several times over these past weeks that the older people among us should consider the future of the young when we cast our vote on 23rd June. There is a salacious rumour going around, it appears, that one day we older folks will die. In the light of this we are being invited to lay aside so called ‘self-interest’ and vote vicariously, that is, on behalf of our children and grandchildren and all who come thereafter. I for one take exception to this line of argument. I do not like being lectured. Neither do I like the idea of being told by those with a particular interest in a particular outcome how I should use my vote.

Some time ago I wrote a little piece in response to a conversation I had read on Nigel Farage’s Twitter page. It appeared on another lesser Blog that is seldom visited these days by those good men and women who write and read here. Some of you might have read it. I am submitting it afresh, slightly edited, as a small response to the intolerable urging described above.

“There was some dopey young thing over on Nigel Farage's Twitter going on about people over 65 should not be allowed to vote in the EU referendum. She said, "Its our future not yours and we should be allowed to decide for ourselves." I pondered her stupidity over my evening meal and send a gentle riposte.


The political wing of the British people

Don Quixote, Going Postal
All class


Don Quixote ©



Monday, 11 April 2016

The (British) Empire Strikes back!

Going Postal
Jihadi Jez
Following the Panama Paper disclosures and the subsequent snap General Election Britain’s new Prime Minister Jeremy Corbyn has reiterated his call for Direct Rule to be imposed on British Overseas Territories (formerly known as Crown Colonies.) He is reported to have told a group of Party Workers:
 
“It is not acceptable in this day and age for aristocratic and loaded individuals to stash cash away in the strong rooms of British Overseas Territories. We have therefore resolved to place our Overseas Territories under direct rule from Westminster.”

Anything to declare Prime Minister?

http://www.going-postal.net/


Don Quixote ©




Sunday, 10 April 2016

The Abuse of Authority and The EU - Parallels in History

We have arrived at the halfway point in this series about Authority in Europe, with particular regard to its misuse. Abuse of Power has been the central thread so far. Now we shall be looking closer at the EU, its formation, its evolution to its present state and what it might be leading to in the future. We will look for evidence where the Abuse of Power in the past has been evident in the EU of the present. Having established the extent of Abuse, we will then be better placed to decide whether we wish it to continue in this way or come to an end with the Referendum on 23 June this year.

1.) Kleptocantocracy

2.) Art and its Challenge to Authority

3.) Science and Authority

4.) Philosophy and Authority

5.) History: Authority in Europe I

6.) History: Authority in Europe II

7.) History - The Tragic Outcomes of Authority

It is appropriate to review the progress we have made so far and identify useful nuggets which may

a.) be used in conversations, perhaps on doorsteps,
and
b.) identify where the backup arguments to these lie.

The Sunday Sermon with Going Postal, 10th April 2016

http://www.going-postal.net/
Hallelujah brothers and sisters, welcome on this beautiful day to the Going Postal Sunday Sermon. Once again I see many new faces in the congregation, some new to me and some I’m sure I’ve seen before, possibly in the local hostelry, again welcome, I don’t know how you all fit in.

This has been another momentous week; according to the bush telegraph rebuilding work at the local Mormon establishment has suffered some setbacks, now they only have room for a much reduced flock, along with The 7 Up Adventists shutting up shop we have indeed been blessed. Come one, come all.

Talking of rebuilding work I have to say that we have also been let down by the local builders, our new reading room has suffered some minor setbacks and won’t now be open for another few days, possibly a week.  However, be assured that The Going Postal Chronicle is ‘coming soon’.


Saturday, 9 April 2016

Cameron mounted - Grand National 2016

Monkeywithapaintbrush.tumblr.com
Monkeywithapaintbrush.tumblr.com



Don Quixote ©


History - The Tragic Outcomes of Authority

 
Guernica by Pablo Picasso 1937

We left the last part of our History with the unification of Germany under Bismarck, a traditional conservative. He had turned the 1848 revolution to his advantage, in contrast with Metternich in Vienna whom it destroyed. Much was commented about Bismarck always being seen in uniform - but it is distinctly possible that he merely wanted to prevent wear to his own clothing. If that is true, it discloses that he was quite a modest person. He was not responsible for Germany's steady rise - the credit for that must go to population growth and heavy industry. If anything, Bismarck wanted to lower the rate of progress in this development.

Prussian hegemony in northern Germany was not seen as a danger by France or Russia. But neither of these countries had industrialised, whereas Germany was moving ahead full-steam - literally! Could it be that the industrialisation and mechanisation of armaments was simple not foreseen by the French and Russians? That must be a distinct possibility.

Bismarck said, "The great questions of our time will not be settled by resolutions and majority votes - that was the mistake of the men of 1848 and 1849 - but by blood and arms." Did this not prove to be the case, if we judge by outcomes?